Glycosyl Glycerides

Monogalactosyldiglyceride (MGDG) and digalactosyldiglyceride (DGDG) are two important biomolecules that are especially prevalent in chloroplast membranes and photosynthetic tissues, including those of algae and some bacteria. MGDG is synthesized by MGDG synthase localized in chloroplast envelope membranes.1 DGDG is formed by the de-phosphorylation of phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylcholine and the subsequent reaction with two 5-diphosphate(UDP)-galactoses. A proper ratio of MGDG and DGDG is critical for membrane function. MGDG plays an important role in the organization and activity of the embedded protein supercomplexes of the thylalkoid membrane of photosystem II and it helps to maintain an optimum lipid to protein ratio.2 DGDG forms a lipid bilayer in the lipid membrane whereas MGDG does not.


  1. Yoshiki Yamaryo et al. "In vitro reconstitution of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) synthase regulation by thioredoxin" FEBS Letters, Vol. 580:17 pp. 4086-4090, 2006
  2. Feng Zhou et al. "Effect of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol on the interaction between photosystem II core complex and its antenna complexes in liposomes of thylakoid lipids" Photosynthesis Research, Volume 99:3 pp. 185-193, 2009

Fatty Acid Composition of Matreya's Natural Lipids

Natural sphingolipids contain a heterogeneous mixture of fatty acids attached to the sphingosine moiety. The fatty acid composition is dependent on several factors including species, location within the organism, age, and environmental conditions. Normal variations in the fatty acids include chain-length, hydroxylation, and unsaturation. The percentages listed are only approximates as the actual amount will vary between lots.

Table for typical fatty acid content of products prepared from natural sources (PDF)